These are very common skin lesions found in normal individuals.
White spots are seen on the inner walls of the buccal cheeks and
along the lips. They are aberrant oil glands and are harmless.
There is no specific treatment and is best left alone.
Fissured tongue has prominent furrows on its surface. It can be
seen in normal people but is also more common in individuals with
a genetic condition called Down's Syndrome. There is no specific
treatment for this disorder and is best left alone.
It is an infection caused by yeast. It is sometimes seen in
children and also in adults with poor fitting dentures, taking
broad-spectrum antibiotics or oral steroid or suffering from
diabetes or from depressed immune system. White, creamy patches
appear on the oral mucosa or tongue which will leave raw red spots
when the white patches are scraped off. Treatments include oral
hygiene, elemination of predisposing factors and the use of
topical or/and oral antifungal agents. Patients should consult
their doctors to be investigated. They should not self-medicate as
an underlying disorder has to be excluded.
Commonly seen in the elderly, it appears as white patches on
the surface of the tongue or mucosa of the mouth or lips. The
white patches cannot be easily wiped off. Smoking, tobacco chewing
and chronic irritation eg. from poorly fitting dentures predispose
to leukoplakia. The lesion may turn cancerous. Hence a biopsy and
close follow-up are required.
Cold Sores (Herpetic Gingivostomatitis)
The infection is caused by Herpes Simplex virus and often
occurs in children. Blisters, erosions and crusting may be seen on
the lips and buccal mucosa. Commonly, the child also has fever,
malaise and enlarged lymph nodes. It is infectious. Severe attacks
may require oral antiviral agent. It usually takes 2 weeks for the
blisters and erosions to clear. Recurrent attacks can occur but
the skin lesions are usually less severe.
It is a troublesome condition that affects normal individuals.
It presents with recurrent episodes of small painful ulcers on the
tongue and/or buccal mucosa, each episode lasting one to several
weeks before healing. For some patients, it may be a manifestation
of iron, folate or vitamin B1 2 deficiency. Symptomatic treatment
may be given with anti-inflammatory analgesic/ anaesthetic gels.
They can be treated with topical steroid gel. More severe cases
may require oral medication.
Oral Lichen Planus
Oral lichen planus appears as white streaks in a lace-like
pattern on the tongue and/or buccal mucosa. It is usually
associated with purplish skin lesions on the body especially
around the wrists and ankles. The oral lesions may be itchy,
painful or asymptomatic. A biopsy is usually taken to confirm the
diagnosis and to exclude malignant transformation. Oral lichen
planus is treated with topical steroid gel.